To tag, or not to tag?

My final research paper for my final class in the SLIS program explored  the use of folksonomies–namely tagging–in libraries. Can tags be used to facilitate online searching by increasing the findability of online resources, and if so, how can this best be accomplished?

Folksonomies started out as a scheme for organizing content on the internet; they allow user groups to collaboratively classify and describe content as they see fit. The practice of tagging functions similarly to that of assigning subject headings in bibliographic records, but instead of a set of predefined, standardized terms (controlled vocabulary) from which to chose, users tag items making use of natural language (uncontrolled vocabulary), with an unlimited number of ways to classify content. Tags are created by users because they want to make it easier for themselves and others to find content, without the need to know formal library methods. Tagging has now become prevalent on interactive Web sites such as blogs, social bookmarks, Flickr, and YouTube. In response to user expectations, and recognizing that the needs of users and librarians are different, some libraries now emphasize keyword searching and have integrated built-in social tools into their OPACs.

The literature shows that folksonomies and controlled vocabularies have their strengths and drawbacks, and that one method is not necessarily the best approach. Controlled vocabularies such as the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) offer precision in terminology and therefore retrieval. However, subject headings can be limited and content can be interpreted differently.  Determining concepts in a resource can be a tricky business and findability is compounded by the fact that most library users are not familiar with controlled vocabularies such as LCSH. Folksonomies can help bridge this gap. The addition of social tagging in OPACs broadens the findability of resources by attaching more vocabulary to a bibliographic record, vocabulary that also happens to reflect the natural language of library users, not catalogers. For users accustomed to search engines, the ability to search by keywords or tags will make OPACs more relevant and intuitive. Integrating folksonomies into OPACs  can complement and supplement traditional library OPACs and follows the current trend of focusing on users and adapting library services to their needs.

However, the addition of folksonomies in OPACs can create new issues. The chaotic nature of folksonomies begs the question: should librarians be allowed to at least manipulate tags created by users? If misspellings or redundancies exist, correcting or eliminating these lapses would seem to right thing to do. However, what does that tell the tag creators whose tags were eliminated–that their tags were less valuable? Librarians can also chose to limit the freedom to choose a tag by guiding and restricting users to certain choices (e.g., text boxes for main character, drop down menu). Can this truly be called social tagging, then? Moreover, should users be able to manipulate tags created by themselves or others? Any plans to restrict the complete freedom of tagging must carefully consider the possibility that someone or something can be excluded.

The timing of this research paper could not be more opportune for me. The adult services department at YLPL have begun a tagging project in VuFind, our OPAC, to create booklists such as readalike and genre lists that can be searched by the staff. I think tagging is a fantastic tool that, when used by the reference staff, enables them to find relevant material quickly and more precisely. At this time, tags are not searchable by patrons but if a tag exists in a record, they can click on it to access the corresponding booklist. Patrons can create still tags, though, and some have already made use of the function. Our staff has created tags for categories such as Hunger Games readalike, French language films, culinary mystery, and gentle read. Check out the booklist that I compiled for an Asian literature tag. It’s possible to break this list down even further into Chinese, Korean, Indian, and so forth, literature…but that will be for another day!


I’ve started my internship for LIBR 294!

To begin: my internship site is at the beautiful Katie Wheeler Library, one of 34 branches belonging to the Orange County Public Libraries system in Southern California. The library is situated in the Irvine Ranch Historic Park and the exterior is a faithful replica of the 1900s Irvine family ranch home. While the interior retains many of the architectural aspects of the original home, such as mahogany accents, fireplaces, and a “grand staircase,” it has been adapted to meet the needs of a library. Opened in February 2008, the Katie Wheeler branch is 11,250 square feet on three floors and offers over 50,000 books, periodicals, DVDs, CDs, and audiobooks. The atmosphere inside is very warm and cozy, and yet it is a fully functional, modern library with wi-fi access, computer workstations, and self-checkout. It feels like no other library I’ve ever visited, and I’ve visited plenty!

Check out the video below for a virtual tour of the library:

My primary goals are to gain hands-on experience in reference services and collection development in a public library setting. To this end, I developed the following learning outcomes:

  • To analyze data and apply various criteria in the selection of library resources
  • To demonstrate ability to provide reference assistance and conduct effective reference interviews
  • To enhance knowledge of popular electronic devices used by library patrons and provide instruction
  • To assess collection for weeding using statistical data and assessment strategies

Although I’ve volunteered at this site, an internship is a much more official capacity. So the adult services librarian, who is my internship supervisor, started off by having me read the policy and procedures manual, which I hadn’t done before. She also went over the procedures that the librarians and library assistants follow upon opening and closing the library. I spent a lot of time observing reference interactions the first week. I am also extremely fortunate that my supervisor is on the training team for e-book devices because one of my learning outcomes is “to Enhance knowledge of popular electronic devices used by library patrons and provide instruction.” She went over the steps that patrons need to take in order to check out e-books on the iPad. We had a brand new iPad2 to play with! We also went over the Kindle.

What I’ve discovered while observing the reference desk at a public library is that there a lot of directional questions. I mean, A LOT. Where’s the bathroom, where’s the elevator, where are the children’s books (children’s materials are on the second floor, which is not immediately apparent for newcomers)….There are also a lot of ready reference questions. By that, I mean patrons asking whether we have a specific book – they will either ask by title or say something like “the latest book by Stephen King” or the biography about Steve Jobs.” Current best sellers are popular here and almost always all checked out throughout the county system. So we are often putting titles on requests for patrons. No meaty reference interviews yet! I’m beginning to wonder if that’s the province of academic libraries. Because of the uniqueness of the library, I have to learn the history of the building and the location so I can answer the inevitable questions about our library. People are genuinely interested and you have to know this stuff!

Navigating my way through the iPad was a fun learning experience. My supervisor first had me try to follow the iPad directions listed on a bookmark that OCPL gives out. Basically, I was testing it out as a patron to see if the instructions were easy to follow. It’s easy enough to follow  basic directions to get started and to download the ebook, but it’s the in-between searching for the ebook part that’s difficult.The searching part tends to get glossed over in any ebook downloading direction I find. Same with the Kindle. If the patrons are in the library asking about how to dowload ebooks, going over how to search for ebooks by demonstrating it on the iPad or on the computer really helps them with the whole process.

First Day as a Substitute Librarian Assistant!

Yorba Linda Public LibraryToday was my first day training as a substitute librarian assistant at Yorba Linda Public Library. I started at 9:00 am and was first given some basic information such as parking and other nuts-and-bolts topics. Karen in Adult Reference then proceeded to give me a tour of the library from a reference librarian’s perspective and showed me how materials were organized throughout. I’ll admit that I’m a little nervous because some categories are in odd places. The revolving paperback displays are scattered all over, with science fiction/fantasy here, mysteries and westerns there, and romance somewhere else. I’m sure I’ll eventually remember where everything is located, but in the meantime, I ought to do some wandering about whenever I can to get everything imprinted in my brain!

After Karen showed me where everything was, Lynn took over and showed me how to do searches in the Horizon ILS. It’s very different from WorkFlows over at Orange County Public Libraries (OCPL). I was able to go through some search questions that Lynn had on a list. There were questions like:

  • Who wrote Death of a Hussy? When was it last checked in? When was it added to the system?
  • What is the latest SAT book published by Barron’s?
  • What is the title of one manga and one graphic novel that the library owns?

Some questions required searching in Horizon; others took me to the library website to find answers.

Afterwards, we looked at the databases offered by Yorba Linda. Again, I had a list where I was asked to find information. Examples include:

  • Find an article on gun control.
  • Using Novelist, search for adult mystery books which have a paranormal aspect to them. Email the results to ******.
  • Find a character profile for Hester Prynne. What book(s) does she appear in?
  • Find the most recent article in Consumer Reports that gives ratings on mp3 players. What database did you use? What date is the article?
  • Which databases/subscription sources would you use if you wanted information on abortion-statistics, history, articles, etc.?

Most of the time, it’s a matter of choosing what you think is the most appropriate database (or database within a database) and just searching by trial and error. MasterFILE Premier is rather like Academic Search Premier and can be used for many, many topics. It is also the database for searching Yorba Linda’s online periodicals.

The rest of the time was spent observing the staff work with patrons. I was able to help out a couple of them – one gentleman wanted to know where he stood in the queue with his holds. Fortunately, I remembered how to look in the Searching folder on the left and then click on the Request folder to view the Borrower Request List! Lynn and I also shared authors that we like, sort of like a reader’s advisory session! She recommended a few authors that I will definitely check out – over winter break. All in all, it was a good introduction to the work I’ll be doing. I’m looking forward to being able to help out a few folks on my own tomorrow!